quarta-feira, 7 de outubro de 2009


Maquiavel, tal como diversos autores, defende o governo misto como condição de se estabelecer a força da lei capaz de manter a república. Afirma que os legisladores mais sábios sempre escolhem o sistema de governo do qual participam todas as formas já referidas, o que o toma mais sólido e estável: "se o príncipe, os aristocratas e o povo governam em conjunto o Estado, podem com facilidade controlar se mutuamente". Lembra o exemplo de Licurgo cuija legislação tornou Esperta estável por oitocentos anos, de tal forma soube contrabalançar o poder do rei, da aristocracia e do povo. E critica Sólon, legislador de Atenas que não reprimiu "a insolência dos aristocratas e a licença da multidão".

A Roma republicana também teve a virtude do equilíbrio
De início, os cônsules e os senadores representavam a mistura da monarquia e a aristocracia, mas, com o tempo, as desavenças entre patrícios e plebeus fizeram com que aqueles cedessem para não perder tudo devido ao ressentimento do povo. Surgiram então os tribunos da plebe, instituição representativa do governo popular. É Maquiavel quem diz: "A sorte favoreceu Roma de tal modo que, embora tenha passado da monarquia à aristocracia e ao governo popular, seguindo a degradação provocada pelas causas que estudamos, o poder real não cedeu toda a sua autoridade para os aristocratas, nem o poder destes foi todo transferido para o povo. 0 equilíbrio dos três poderes fez, assim, com que nascesse uma república perfeita". Maquiavel reitera essa posição quando nota que, no seu tempo, a república de Veneza e a monarquia inglesa são estáveis porque têm um governo misto. Os governos simples, ao contrário, são "pestíferos" peia breve duração. Por isso, defende a reforma do Estado de Florença em um texto enviado a Leão X, propondo a seguinte divisão:

-Um governo vitalício de 65 cidadãos, entre os quais é escolhido o gonfaloneiro;
-Um Senado composto de duzentos membros, o Conselho dos Escolhidos;
-Um Conselho Popular constituído de seiscentos a mil cidadãos.

Fonte: Maquiavel - a lógica da força, Ed. Moderna, 1993, pág. 71 e 73

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